Apple’s new iPhone 8 and iPhone X implement USB Power Delivery over Lightning

Apple’s new iPhone 8 and iPhone X implement USB Power Delivery over Lightning, very similar to the iPad Pro 12.9″ and 10.1″ for high voltage charging.

While this means that the phones themselves won’t have USB Type-C ports, with the right C-to-Lightning cable, you’ll be able to use them with the same power sources that charge laptops and other Type-C devices such as Pixel phones.

Lets face the facts, IPv6 implementation is not exactly taking of very well, so now there is a new plan, IPv10

xkcd

And why do we need a new standard? Do our ISP support IPv6? In what way? No clue? Neather do I. But help is on the way…somewhere, in a galaxy far far away:

IP version 10 (IPv10) is a new version of the Internet Protocol,designed to allow IP version 6 [RFC-2460] to communicate to
IP version 4 (IPv4) [RFC-791] and vice versa.

– Internet is the global wide network used for communication between hosts connected to it.

– These connected hosts (PCs, servers, routers, mobile devices, etc.) must have a global unique addresses to be able to communicate through the Internet and these unique addresses are defined in the Internet Protocol (IP).

The first version of the Internet Protocol is IPv4.

– When IPv4 was developed in 1975, it was not expected that the number of connected hosts to the Internet reach a very huge number of hosts more than the IPv4 address space, also it was aimed to be used for experimental purposes in the beginning.

– IPv4 is (32-bits) address allowing approximately 4.3 billion unique IP addresses.

– A few years ago, with the massive increase of connected hosts to the Internet, IPv4 addresses started to run out.

– Three short-term solutions (CIDR, Private addressing, and NAT) were introduced in the mid-1990s but even with using these solutions, the IPv4 address space ran out in February, 2011 as announced by IANA, The announcement of depletion of the IPv4 address space by the RIRs is as follows:

* April, 2011: APNIC announcement.
* September, 2012: RIPE NCC announcement.
* June, 2014: LACNIC announcement.
* September, 2015: ARIN announcement.

– A long term solution (IPv6) was introduced to increase the address space used by the Internet Protocol and this was defined in the Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6).

– IPv6 was developed in 1998 by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).

– IPv6 is (128-bits) address and can support a huge number of unique IP addresses that is approximately equals to 2^128 unique addresses.

– So, the need for IPv6 became a vital issue to be able to support the massive increase of connected hosts to the Internet after the IPv4 address space exhaustion.

– The migration from IPv4 to IPv6 became a necessary thing, but unfortunately, it would take decades for this full migration to be accomplished.

– 19 years have passed since IPv6 was developed, but no full migration happened till now and this would cause the Internet to be divided into two parts, as IPv4 still dominating on the Internet traffic (85% as measured by Google in April, 2017) and new Internet hosts will be assigned IPv6-only addresses and be able to communicate with
15% only of the Internet services and apps.

– So, the need for solutions for the IPv4 and IPv6 coexistence became an important issue in the migration process as we cannot wake up in the morning and find all IPv4 hosts are migrated to be IPv6 hosts, especially, as most enterprises have not do this migration for creating a full IPv6 implementation.

– Also, the request for using IPv6 addresses in addition to the existing IPv4 addresses (IPv4/IPv6 Dual Stacks) in all enterprise networks have not achieve a large implementation that can make IPv6 the most dominated IP in the Internet as many people believe that they will not have benefits from just having a larger IP address
bits and IPv4 satisfies their needs, also, not all enterprises devices support IPv6 and also many people are afraid of the service outage that can be caused due to this migration.

– The recent solutions for IPv4 and IPv6 coexistence are:

  • Native dual stack (IPv4 and IPv6)
  • Dual-stack Lite
  • NAT64
  • 464xlat
  • MAP
  • (other technologies also exist, like lw6over4; they may have more specific use cases)

– IPv4/IPv6 Dual Stack, allows both IPv4 and IPv6 to coexist by using both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses for all hosts at the same time, but this solution does not allows IPv4 hosts to communicate to IPv6 hosts and vice versa. Also, after the depletion of the IPv4 address space, new Internet hosts will not be able to use IPv4/IPv6 Dual Stacks.

– Tunneling, allows IPv6 hosts to communicate to each other through an IPv4 network, but still does not allows IPv4 hosts to communicate to IPv6 hosts and vice versa.

– NAT-PT, allows IPv6 hosts to communicate to IPv4 hosts with only using hostnames and getting DNS involved in the communication process but this solution was inefficient because it does not allows communication using direct IP addresses, also the need for so much protocol translations of the source and destination IP addresses made the solution complex and not applicable thats why it was moved to the Historic status in the RFC 2766. Also, NAT64 requires so much
protocol translations and statically configured bindings, and also getting a DNS64 involved in the communication process.

Internet Protocol version 10 (IPv10).

– IPv10 is the solution presented in this Internet draft.

– It solves the issue of allowing IPv6 only hosts to communicate to IPv4 only hosts and vice versa in a simple and very efficient way, especially when the communication is done using both direct IP addresses and when using hostnames between IPv10 hosts, as there is no need for protocol translations or getting the DNS involved in the communication process more than its normal address resolution function.

– IPv10 allows hosts from two IP versions (IPv4 and IPv6) to be able to communicate, and this can be accomplished by having an IPv10 packet containing a mixture of IPv4 and IPv6 addresses in the same IP packet header.

– From here the name of IPv10 arises, as the IP packet can contain (IPv6 + IPv4 /IPv4 + IPv6) addresses in the same layer 3 packet header.

[Rest of the draft can be read here]

Jupiters Aurora is a factor of 10 brighter than it should be based on Earth-like physics

Jupiter’s polar regions—anywhere between 10 and 30 times greater than any seen on Earth. Which they expected—everything’s bigger and badder on Jupiter. Trouble is, Jupiter’s aurora isn’t 10 or even 30 times stronger than Earth’s. It’s about a hundred times stronger. And there is no Earthly explanation for that discrepancy.

“Basically, the aurora is a factor of 10 brighter than it should be based on Earth-like physics,” Mauk says.

Whatever process accelerates Jupiter’s electrons up to a million electron volts is likely a total unknown. And Mauk, with the help of theorists and data from a few more orbits, is already on the trail of what that might be. “After orbit seven we saw what I would consider to be the smoking gun,” Mauk says. Mauk’s Jedi instrument saw the characteristic inverted V structure, but the electron excitement didn’t end there. As the electrical potential rose at the peak of the V, the acceleration went from coherent and linear to random—Mauk calls that a stochastic acceleration process. “Something goes unstable, and you start forming these waves,” Mauk says. “Some electrons gain a lot of energy, some just a little.”
What makes things get all unstable and random? Unclear.